Bilateral Projects

The optimization of the conditions for in vitro reproduction and cultivation of non-traditional fruit lianes Actinidia arguta and Schisandra chinensis cultivars (Ukrainian selection)

(SAV-UAV, 2017-2019)
This project will initiate cooperation between Institutions in the area of plant micropropagation and will promote level of research. The realization of the project will enable to successfully propagate and cultivate the valuable species for human health (Actinidia arguta and Schisandra chinensis cultivars), which will have commercial effect and social and ecological value.
Project leader: RNDr. Gabriela Libiaková, PhD.

Chitinases and AGPs as proteins diversifying genotypes with high ability to microspore embryogenesis from non-embryogenic in crops
(SK-PL -2015-0044; 2016-2017)
The project is aimed at linking of the two research laboratories with expertise on embryogenesis (Poland) and molecular analysis (Slovakia). It is dedicated to the study and optimization of androgenesis for rye as a tool for more efficient breeding through dihaploid lines. On biological materials with contrasting androgenic potential it will be evaluated the effect of action of abiotic factors such as cold and osmotic stress. It will be studied in detail the changes in accumulation of chitinase enzymes and arabinogalactans, which in model plants had a beneficial effect on androgenesis. Results of the project are intended to impart the knowledge about the process of androgenesis and factors affecting its efficacy in rye.
Project leader: Ing. Jana Moravčíková, CSc.

Stress-inducible expression of arabinogalactans
and defence-related proteins in relation to androgenesis initiation
(SAV-PAV; 2016-2017)
Understanding of mechanisms leading to plant embryogenesis under inducible stress conditions (e.g. temperature and/or osmotic stress) at the molecular level is crucial in crop improvement. To overcome resistance of genotypes to microspore embryogenesis (ME) under in vitro conditions, selectable markers for responsiveness/recalcitrance are essential to be identified. Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs, PR3; chitinases) involved in the plant defence (a)biotic responses with arabinogalactans (AGPs), probably functioned in cell division, differentiation and development, seem to be good candidates. The aim of this project is to characterize the expression of PR3 and AGPs in relation to ME induction effectiveness in rye (Secale cereale L.).

Project leader: Ing. Jana Moravčíková, PhD.

Clonal propagation of selected cultivars of Rubus and Prunus spp. under in vitro conditions

(APVV, SR-SRB, 2015-2016)
Raspberries and blackberries belong among the valuable fruit species with positive impact on human health. Although, there are proper conditions for cultivation of these species in Slovakia, their production is insufficient. By contraries, cultivation of raspberries and blackberries has a long tradition in Serbia and raspberries belong among important export goods. Plums represent the fruit species which were grown broadly in Slovakia in the past. In Serbia, plums are the most cultivated fruit tree species. Although Serbia is one of the largest word producers of plums, the plum production is characterized by both low and unstable yields at present. One of the main problems for Serbian as well as European plum production is Plum pox virus responsible for Sharka, considered as most serious viral disease worldwide affecting crop production of Prunus stone fruits. Therefore, production of healthy planting material and genetic improvement of Prunus spp. is of high importance. Use of tissue cultures provides possibilities for effective production of high quality healthy planting material and for targeted fruit tree breeding by application of genetic engineering. The aim of this project is development of procedures of efficient adventitious regeneration and micropropagation of selected Rubus and Prunus cultivars usable in large-scale propagation of planting material and genetic transformation.
Project leader: RNDr. Alena Gajdošová, PhD.

Response of Norway spruce somatic embryos to abiotic stresses
(SAV-AV ČR 15-06; 2015-2017)
The aim of the project is to evaluate the response of Norway spruce somatic embryos to abiotic stresses. Somatic embryos will be exposed to different desiccation treatments (high temperature and decreased humidity) and to different doses of UV-B radiation. The alterations of activities of polyamine biosynthetic enzymes and contents of polyamines, abscisic acid (a key endogenous messenger in a plant's response to stresses) and the extent of lipid peroxidation will be evaluated in somatic embryos cultured in stress conditions. The histochemical tests for the presence of polyphenolic substances after the exposure of embryos to UV-B radiationwill complete the biochemical analyses.The collaboration with the Slovak group will complement the research with studies of the family of chitinases at molecular level that will enable to study contemporarily the isoforms important for embryo development as well as dynamics of ongoing stress. The use of somatic embryos will facilitate detailed studies of early physiological responses to various kinds of environmental stresses.
Project leader: Mgr. Ildikó Matušíková, PhD.

Study of the effect of the compounds present in algae on germination of Orobanche and Striga spp.
(SK-CZ-2013-0121; 2015)
There is a risk of invasive spread of parasitic plants of the genus Phelipanche/Orobanche due to warmer favourable climatic conditions for these species in Slovakia and surrounding countries. So far there are some challenging inductors of seed germination, but there are not specified other effective resources. This project should contribute to finding of readily available and easily applicable microalgae to stimulate or inhibit germination of seeds of parasitic plants.
Project leader: RNDr. Radoslava Matúšová, PhD.

Investigate the machanism of male sterility regulated by DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE1 (DAD1) - Activating Factor (DAF), a RING-finger E3 ligase gene and its agricultural application

(NSC Taiwan, 2014-2016)
Transduction pathway regulated by DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE1 (DAD1)- Activating Factor (DAF) is not well understood. Complementary postgenomic approaches, microarray (Dr. Yang) and proteomic (Dr. Hajduch), and the 35S::DAF RNAi or antisense Arabidopsis mutant plants will be used to investigate the target genes and proteins for DAF. Additionally, the investigation of phosphorylation status of target proteins for DAF will determine the role of protein phosphorylation in the regulation of DAF. Identified target genes and proteins will be cloned, characterized and functional analyzed through transgenic approach. This project might results into suitable targets for genetic transformation in order to control male sterility in valuable agricultural plants such as Eustoma.

Project leader:
Mgr. Martin Hajduch, PhD.

Cryopreservation of embryogenic cultures of valuable clones of coniferous species

(SAV-PAV; 2013-2015)
Somatic embryogenesis is a process of embryo formation - somatic embryos - in artificial conditions in test tubes (in vitro). The process represents a very efficient method of vegetative plant propagation, especially in conifers. The cultivation of somatic embryos is time consuming, laborious and holds the risk of microbial contamination. Recently a new approach has been developed for long-term storage of in vitro cultures - cryopreservation - storage of plant genetic resources in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) without loss of cell/tissue viability. The aim of the submitted project is to optimise the existing cryopreservation protocols for valuable conifer species.
Project leader: RNDr. Terézia Salaj, CSc.

Assesment of genetic fidelity of in vitro propagated small fruits Rubus a Vaccinium spp.
(SK-SRB, 2012-2013)
Interest about small fruits has an increasing tendency because of their high nutritional value. The sufficient fruit production can be achieved by cultivation of productive cultivars. For this a big amount of planting material is needed, propagation of which can be reached by use of in vitro cultures. In plant micropropagation, the production of plants identical with mother genotype is desirable. The broad range of quantitative and qualitative variability among regenerated plants arising during in vitro cultivation and regeneration of plant tissue can be problem in plant micropropagation.
Morphological, cytological, bichemical and molecular analyses are required to confirm clonal fidelity of vegetatively propagated plant material. Such analyses enable efficient rapid testing of undesired genetic variability. Project is oriented on elaboration of systems for in vitro regeneration and micropropagation of selected cultivars of Vaccinium and Rubus spp. micropropagation of which wasn't till now extensive in Slovakia and Serbia and on detection of undesirable genetic variability in micropropagated plants by DNA analysis, flow cytometry and light microscopy.
Project leader: RNDr. Alena Gajdošová, CSc.

Participating of the antioxidant plants systems in a physiological-biochemical response on a cadmium and nickel stress influence
(SAV-PAV 27, 2011-2013)
Purpose of project is to define the role of low-molecular antioxidants (glutathione reduced form, ascorbic acid and others) in forming of the proper biochemical reactions in plants upon exposure to stress by both single and compatible action of cadmium and nickel compounds. Input of these compounds into the network of plant defence machinery (namely in regard to cell wall strengthening, metal deposition and activation of specific defence proteins) will be clarified.
Project leader: Mgr. Ildikó Matušíková, PhD.

The influence of the overexpression of cinamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene in transgenic poplar on the process of lignification

(SAV-UAV 12, 27, 2011-2013)
The aim of this project is to create the platform for mutual cooperation in the field of plant transgenosis. Slovak partner will provide to Ukrainian counterpart the know-how in the field of the vector constructs, the established transformation protocols, and analyses of transformants. Ukrainian partner will provide to Slovak partner the experience obtained at poplar transformation. It is supposed that the mutual cooperation will lead to elaboration of joint scientific projects in the future.
Project leader:
Ing. Jana Libantová, CSc.

Phosphoproteomics analysis of mature seeds harvested from soybean grown in radioactive and control fields of Chernobyl area
(SK-PT-0016-10, 2011-2012)
Previous proteomic studies of soybean seed have identified the major functional categories of proteins which undergo changes in expression during seed development. A subsequent comparison of mature soybean seeds grown proximal to Chernobyl with those grown in control areas has suggested a working model for plant adaptation to contaminated conditions. This model considered the differential expression of seed storage proteins, a heavy metal-like response and an alteration in the glycine-bataine system for increased protection against radiation damage.
Project leader: Mgr. Martin Hajduch, PhD.

Molecular markers in the analysis of auxin distribution in oilseed androgenic embryos

(SAV-PAV, 2010-2012)
Auxin signaling is a key to many plant growth and developmental processes from embryogenesis to senescence. An endogenous auxin led to the induction of embryo development in in vitro cultures, during somatic embryogenesis or androgenesis. Present investigation is aiming at elaboration of transformation procedure for androgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) embryos obtained from microspore suspension culture. Transformed embryos could be used as objects for the analysis of auxin at the level of tissue, or cell. Transgenic structures with the reporter GUS or GFP genes under the control of hormone-sensitive DR5 promoter (auxin-sensitive DR5::GUS or DR5::GFP) are of especial importance. Application of such hormone-sensitive reporter constructs simplifies the analysis of hormone synthesis, transport, and accumulation in androgenic structures resembles embryos.
Project leader: Ing. Jana Moravčíková, PhD.